- Jean-Claude Passeron: Que Reste-T-Il Des Héritiers Et De La Reproduction () Aujourd'hui?
- The Affirmation Principle — Fashion, between the Individual and Society
- Bourgeois Politics in France, 1945-1951
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## Jean-Claude Passeron: Que Reste-T-Il Des Héritiers Et De La Reproduction () Aujourd'hui?

Follow Us. App Download. US UK. Thank you for subscribing! Please check your email to confirm your subscription. Our Stores. We go a step further and claim that semantics should be mathematically relevant to be of any real use.

## The Affirmation Principle — Fashion, between the Individual and Society

What really matters in mathematical semantics is that the objects and object combinations obey deep combinatorial and algebraic properties. We believe the topological approach has a great deal of promise for the theory of distributed and concurrent computation, and that it merits further investigation. We look forward to the day when knowledge of elementary combinatorial and algebraic topology is considered as essential to theoretical computer science as knowledge of graph theory or probability theory.

Timothy Gowers, Blog post. The original version of this book discussed the first period [of Homological Algebra] only; this new edition remains at the same introductory level, but it now introduces the second period as well. This change makes sense pedagogically, for there has been a change in the mathematics population since ; today, virtually all mathematics graduate students have learned something about functors and categories, and so I can now take the categorical viewpoint more seriously.

Joseph J. Rotman, An Introduction to Homological Algebra, introduction to the second edition. Language is the raw material of software engineering, rather as water is the raw material for hydraulic engineering. The difference is that water is rather well understood by physical science ; but software — as a raw material — is still not scientifically understood. Nevertheless our software engineers have filled the world with software at enormous speed. The aim of theory really is, to a great extent, that of systematically organizing past experience in such a way that the next generation, our students and their students and so on, will be able to absorb the essential aspects in as painless a way as possible, and this is the only way in which you can go on cumulatively building up any kind of scientific activity without eventually coming to a dead end.

But most of all a good example is a thing of beauty. It shines and convinces. It gives insight and understanding.

It provides the bedrock of belief. As a consequence, we have to figure out certain inferences for which Young omits any explanation out of respect for his readers. The axiomatization of the notion of category, discovered by Eilenberg and Mac Lane in the forties, is an example of beauty in a definition, though a controversial one. It has given rise to a new field, category theory, which is rich in beautiful and insightful definitions and poor in elegant proofs.

The basic notions of this field, such as adjoint and representable functor, derived category, and topos, have carried the day with their beauty, and their beauty has been influential in steering the course of mathematics in the latter part of this century; however, the same cannot be said of the theorems which remain clumsy. The greatest danger to good computer science research today may be excessive relevance… Another danger is that commercial pressure of one sort or another will divert the attention of the best thinkers from real innovation to exploitation of the current fad, from prospecting to mining a known lode.

I was too young at the time to ask him what he meant, and then the conversation progressed to a joint grumble about the complexity of the first two volumes of SGA4.

Mac Lane and I shared the conviction that easy mathematics, and particularly category theory, should be expressed simply. This result is folklore , which is a technical term for a method of publication in category theory. It means that someone sketched it on the back of an envelope, mimeographed it whatever that means and showed it to three people in a seminar in Chicago in , except that the only evidence that we have of these events is a comment that was overheard in another seminar at Columbia in Nevertheless, if some younger person is so presumptuous as to write out a proper proof and attempt to publish it, they will get shot down in flames.

All of algebraic geometry can be systematically developed from this point of view, making it very clean and beautiful, and incomprehensible for the beginner. Each structure carries with it its own language, freighted with special intuitive references derived from the theories from which the axiomatic analysis described above has derived the structure.

And, for the research worker who suddenly discovers this structure in the phenomena which he is studying, it is like a sudden modulation which orients at one stroke in an unexpected direction the intuitive course of his thought, and which illumines with a new light the mathematical landscape in which he is moving about. It means pruning an algebraic representation at every step rather than just once at the end of all the steps. Models, such as a cost semantics, are what distinguishes computer science from computer programming.

These models give us theories which, through the use of formal proofs and empirical tests, can be verified or refuted. These models also reveal something of human character of the study of abstraction: that science, as a human endeavor, reflects our desire to seek out simplicity and beauty in the world around us, including truths about computation.

It is difficult to figure out what is critical to the well-functioning of a complex operational mechanism. In contrast, we have more experience in finding the general conditions under which a mathematical result is valid.

## Bourgeois Politics in France, 1945-1951

The mathematics has a life on its own, which is only patchily covered and understood in terms of existing process languages and their operational semantics. The unstructured use of assignment is a bigger problem in creating obscure dependencies and side effects. The limitations of categories are the same as those of savoir-vivre, i. Beauty is the first test: there is no permanent place in this world for ugly mathematics.

In no engineering discipline the successful pursuit of academic ideals pays more material dividends than in software engineering. The conclusion we draw from this state of affairs is that no really satisfactory programming environment will exist for ugly languages. In the design and proof of programs, a firm grip on the model theory of the language will prove more useful than the knowledge of a delicate and mythical interpretive mechanism.

It seems disrespectful to the defining political idea of the twentieth century to reduce it to work-a-day and unheroic and reformist policy proposals; but better this disrespect from its friends than the crimes of its fanatics. Practical men who believe themselves to be quite exempt from any intellectual influence, are usually the slaves of some defunct economist. The point about any new socialism is that it must not be a crusade.

It must, as Stendhal said about his study of love, be dry-free of ardour. It must look at the boundary between private and communal economic power, not with faith and passion, but coldly, without messianic or crusading zeal. Political control of economic life is not the consummation of world history, the fulfilment of destiny, or the imposition of righteousness; it is a painful necessity. Ernest Gellner, The rest of History. Distinction: A social critique of the judgment of taste. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.

Le patronat [The employers]. Actes de la recherche en sciences sociales , 20, 3— La reproduction. Elements for a theory of the teaching system]. Bronfenbrenner, U. Socialization and social class through time and space. Seidenberg Eds. New York: Holt, Reinehart and Winston. Cabecinhas, R. Direct and indirect assessment of group homogeneity perceptions in a natural group setting.

Psicologia , 17, — Cadinu, M. Comparing self-stereotyping with in-group-stereotyping and out-group-stereotyping in unequal-status groups: The Case of gender. Self and Identity , 12, — Caricati, L. Considering intermediate-status groups in intergroup hierarchies: A theory of triadic social stratification. Journal of Theoretical Social Psychology , 2, 58— Chan, T.

Social status and cultural consumption. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. How social class shapes thoughts and actions in organizations.

Research in Organizational Behavior , 31, 43— Croizet, J. How do educational contexts contribute to the social class achievement gap: Documenting symbolic violence from a social psychological point of view.

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Current Opinion in Psychology , 18, — Cross, S. Models of the self: Self-construals and gender. Psychological Bulletin , , 5— Daloz, J. Rethinking social distinction.

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Darley, J. A hypothesis-confirming bias in labeling effects. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , 44, 20— Faniko, K. Journal of Applied Social Psychology , 42, — Fiske, S.